Economies - New earth practise

From Beyond Social


The commons, alternative/informal economies, social-communal-value systems and power structures


Economics is broken. It has failed to predict, let alone prevent, financial crises that have shaken the foundations of our societies. Its outdated theories have permitted a world in which extreme poverty persists while the wealth of the super-rich grows year on year. And its blind spots have led to policies that are degrading the living world on a scale that threatens all of our futures.

Anne



'Degrowth signifies a society with a smaller metabolism, but more importantly, a society with a metabolism which has a different structure and serves new functions. Degrowth does not call for doing less of the same. The objective is not to make an elephant leaner, but to turn an elephant into a snail. In a degrowth society everything will be different: different activities, different forms and uses of energy, different relations, different gender roles, different allocations of time between paid and non-paid work, different relations with the non-human world.’

'The degrowth imaginary centres around the reproductive economy of care, and the reclaiming of old – and the creation of new – commons. Caring in common is embodied in new forms of living and producing, such as eco-communities and cooperatives and can be supported by new government institutions, such as work-sharing or a basic and maximum income, institutions which can liberate time from paid work and make it available for unpaid communal and caring activities’

Two definitions written in the book: ‘Degrowth: A Vocabulary for a New Era’ - chapter 2. Degrowth today (starting at page 72)



Nowadays we use the GDP as a tool for measuring growth. The costs of growth include bad psychological health, long working hours, congestion and pollution. To grow the GDP we want to produce more products.


The results of a growing economy based on GDP:

  • How more the economy in western world grow how lower the economy in the underdeveloped territories will be. This because the energy and the materials that extracted from commodity frontiers are often in underdeveloped territories that suffer the impacts of extraction. The people that are leders of factories are al in competition to each other to get company’s to use their factories. Because of that the hourly rate of the working people is getting lower and lower. Products are getting cheaper so the consumption will grow.
  • Companies deliberately choose to produce and sell products that have a shorter lifespan so that consumers have to buy a new product more often because it breaks. For producing more product we need more materials and throw away a lot of stuff. This is all bad for the environment.


But does economic growth increase happiness? No. It is never enough everybody wants to have more than their neighbors. Countries feel pressured to compete, to follow the path of western overdevelopment with economic growth. This all because money gives you a feeling of power.


In stead of measuring growth coupled to GDP some economists are working on more relevant and alternative such as the Human Development Index (HDI), the ecological footprint or the social health index. Some sectors, such as education medical care, or renewable energy, will flourish in the future, while others, such as dirty industries or the financial sector shrink. The result will be ‘degrowth’.


The results of degrowth:

  • Sharing, simplicity, sociability, care and equality are significations of what this society might look like.
  • Degrowth in the North will liberate ecological space for growth in the South. This because degrowth in the North will make natural resources and industrial goods more accessible to the developing South. As Kate Raworth is saying with the concept of the doughnut economy, ’By regenerative and distributive design we can make sure that healthcare, education, political voice, finance, energy reaches and empower the people who need it the most.’


In order to achieve degrowth we need to come up with new laws, higher/ different taxes.

  • More taxes for companies that produce in an unsustainable way (not recycled materials, products that do not last long etc.) and subsidies for companies who do (recycled materials, products that do last long etc.).
  • Maximum income for individuals but also company’s. High incomes are essentially wasted so far as wellbeing is concerned. A maximum income will avoid wasteful consumption and create more egalitarian societies. The tax procured from the maximum income could be used to fund universal basic services and basic income.
  • Laws for longer guarantees period, the right to repair, for take-back systems, and protect the public space from advertisements telling us to buy more and more - both offline and online.


Our economic system needs to change to a sharing economy, introducing:

  • Universal basic income would liberate people: perhaps a minimum of €1,000 a month, given unconditionally as a cash grant, or through the tax system as a negative income tax. This gives people the opportunity to choose a useful job they like in stead of choosing a job for security and high income. A basic income ensures that wealth can be distributed across a society.
  • Universal basic services that guaranteed public coverage of housing, education, health care, transportation, communication devices, etc. As example in England you have the NHS (National Health Service) that provides all people in England primarily and secondary health care. Country’s as Scandinavia and Germany provide free education. This is financed by the national taxes. Why do we not use this concept in different parts of our society that have an effect on poverty and life changes for people across our society?
  • Reduction of working hours. In a shrinking capitalist economy, fewer people are necessary to produce declining levels of production which leads to reductions in working-hours. The result will be unemployment. With intentional degrowth, work has to be shared by voluntary trading of income for time, through four-day workweeks, permanent part-time (with benefits and career ladders) and job sharing. Another option is to reduce the length of working lives by earlier or phased retirement.


Interesting article’s, book and ted talk to read/ listen:

Article by John Cassidy : Can we have prosperity without growth? The critique of economic growth, once a fringe position, is gaining widespread attention in the face of the climate crisis.

Ted talk of Rutger Bregman about the basic income:

Arguments for and against a universal basic income:

Ted talk of Kalle Moene about applying universal basic share in poor country’s:

Book: Degrowth: A Vocabulary for a New Era

Ted talk by Kate Raworth about the doughnut economy:

Jorick


Regenerative economy is a way of thinking about our economic systems based around the goal of having an economy that fully regenerates any resources it uses and repairs previously done damage to the ecosystem.

For inspiration thinkers around the concept of the regenerative economy look towards the earth’s ecosystem, the largest fully regenerative system we know.1 Much like the earth, thinkers theorize, the economy should be seen as one whole system that cannot solely be analyzed as a product of its individual parts. Therefore, change cannot happen in just one facet of the economy. The solution to our current climate crisis can only arise by reimagining our entire economy to be fairer as a whole. A lot of these principles can be found in the Green New Deal, a sweeping package of proposed US legislation that aims to take on the country’s inequality as well as the current climate crisis by utilizing a transition to renewable energy and reparative works on the environment as an opportunity to provide fulfilling, well-rewarded work for all.2

The regenerative economy is significantly different from the circular or blue economy, in that these concepts stop at adapting our current economy’s means of production, whereas the regenerative economy acknowledges that our entire economic system needs to be reimagined.3 Where other visions on future economies strive to do no harm to our environment, the regenerative economy includes an element of healing and restoring our ecosystem, leaving it in a better state than we found it.

Regen Economy.jpg

Other definitions:

John Fullerton, founder of the Capital Institute: We can and must use the universal patterns and principles the cosmos uses to build stable, healthy and sustainable systems in our design of the economy. When doing this, we need to change our view of what the economy really is, and adapt our assumptions about what a healthy economy looks like.4

"Economic vigor is a product of human and societal vitality, rooted in ecological health and the inclusive development of human capabilities and potential."5

By changing the assumptions we have about what economic success means, most notably that it can’t be defined solely by GDP growth, Fullerton radically changes our economic goals. By his definition, our economy should support the success of the ecosystems we are part of, which would be inseparably linked to human, economic and financial health.

Daniel Christian Wahl, the author of Designing Regenerative Cultures6, observes a need to rethink our definition of wealth and the role of transactions in the economy. By just defining wealth in monetary terms, he states, we miss out on the fact that by restoring the health of our ecosystems and communities we are creating wealth for all. Transactions are a necessity for any economy, but instead of simple transactions of commodities for money, Wahl reimagines the material flows of the regenerative economy as the “metabolic systems found in resilient living systems.” In this system, waste doesn’t exist. Instead, the rear-end of one process is merely the front-end of the next. As Wahl states, the first concrete steps towards a fairer system can already be taken: the flow of capital should be moved to the real economy and away from the speculative economy, where it serves no real life purpose except to multiply itself. Also, monetary flows should be shifted away from destructive and exploitative enterprises towards regenerative ones.7

Citation:

1Daniel Christian Wahl, “Redesigning Economics Based on Ecology,” July 6, 2020, https://blog.usejournal.com/redesigning-economics-based-on-ecology-35a82f751f25.
2Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez and Avi Lewis, “A Message From the Future With Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez,” April 17, 2019, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d9uTH0iprVQ.
3Daniel Christian Wahl, “Towards a Regenerative Economy,” Medium (Age of Awareness, April 9, 2020), https://medium.com/age-of-awareness/towards-a-regenerative-economy-bf1c2ed6f792.
4John Fullerton, Regenerative Capitalism (Capital Institute, 2015), 8, https://capitalinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/2015-Regenerative-Capitalism-4-20-15-final.pdf.
5Ibid., 40.
6Daniel Christian Wahl, Designing Regenerative Cultures (Axminster: Triarchy Press, 2017).
7Daniel Christian Wahl, “Towards a Regenerative Economy.”

Julia

What are the limitations of existing coop models? how could they be overcome? Peer to Peer Manifesto. Platform Cooperativism. See Commons folder for more!


What is cooperative and solidarity economy?


Solidarity economy is a form of production, consumption and distribution of resources that focuses on people, and not on the accumulation of capital. Today’s economy doesn’t really care about people. Inequalities and division are more visible. As a result, many people can’t have access to housing, education or health services. Social and solidarity economy puts people before profits. It invests in people’s creativity and capacities, creating quality jobs as well as prioritizing social objectives. This way people in marginalized groups can feel more empowered and feel included in their jobs.1 The video below from Caritas Europe explains a bit more about social economy and putting people before profits. 2

The contemporary use of the term Solidarity economy appears to have emerged in both France and South America in the early 1980s. European concepts of solidarity economy emerged from a long tradition of ‘social economy’, activism and policy, oriented toward addressing social and economic exclusion.

The concept stems from the world of cooperatives. It wants to give groups democratic control over economic processes. Labor is not seen as a production factor, but as a process in which a person can free and develop himself. And economics is not seen as a separate process, but viewed within a lot of dimensions such as social, political, ecological and the cultural. The solidarity economy seeks to nurture these values, as opposed to individualistic, competitive values, divisiveness of racism, classism, and sexism that characterize capitalism. With this, the solidarity economy also moves on the public area, in which it strives for a more just society.3,4

The solidarity economy exists in all sectors of the economy5.Non-monetized activities that are often motivated by solidarity, such as care labor and community nurturing are part of the solidarity economy. A lot of cooperative and grassroot economic initiatives already exist, often hidden or marginalized by the dominant economy. Examples of this are: worker, consumer and producer cooperatives; fair trade initiatives; community-run social centers; community development; credit unions; community gardens; open source free software initiatives; community supported agriculture programs and more.

An example of one of these more traditional coop types is The Co-operative College. This is an educational charity in Manchester which is dedicated to the promotion of co-operative values, ideas and principles within co-operatives, communities and society. It’s core values are Self-help, Self-responsibility, Democracy, Equality, Equity and Solidarity. This charity wants to empower and inspire individuals and communities to build a fairer world. It for helps people improve their lives, creating sustainable, fair and equitable communities.6

Ethan Miller in papers and reports from the U.S. Social Forum 2007:

“ While incredibly diverse, these initiatives share a broad set of values that stand in bold contrast to those of the dominant economy. - The core idea is simple: alternatives are everywhere and our task is to identify them and connect them in ways that build a coherent and powerful social movement for another economy . In this way, solidarity economy is not so much a model of economic organization as it is a process of economic organizing ; it is not a vision , but an active process of collective visioning” 7

A subset of solidarity economy is a commons-based peer production. This production contains a model of socio-economic production in which large numbers of people work cooperatively, often over the internet. This way, contributors of such a peer to peer production van create shared value through open contributory systems. Commons-based projects have less hierarchical structures than traditional business models and organizes labor relations differently than most traditional productions. The term is often used interchangeably with the term social production.8

Learning Circle Solidarity Economy

My definition


In my view, cooperative and solidarity economy cares mostly for putting people before profit. It looks at what an individual can mean for a bigger cause. I think cooperative and solidarity economy is an interesting way of thinking about the economy that opens up spaces of possibility for a more just, sustainable and democratic economy. Also, the fact that this type of economy exists in all sectors of economy is interesting. The fact that this Peer production can be innovative within the context of capitalist competition is one of the reasons why this type of economy can really grow into a more dominant position in the current economy.

A downside of this type of economy might be that it is very dependent on these smaller movements and people. There might be initiatives that share similar values of a solidarity economy, but identify with different terms like a ‘local living economy’ of ‘social economy’. It can be hard to effectively link up different cooperatives into federative structures to build a broader solidarity economy. Maybe a platform for these initiatives to recognize each other's values in each other would be a way to overcome this problem.

Enspiral is a more concrete example of solidarity economy. What Enspiral does differently, is to work independently on projects, but to pool their profit to protect every member’s livelihoods. It is a virtual and physical network of companies and professionals brought together by a set of shared values and a passion for positive social impact. It’s sort of a “DIY” social enterprise support network. At its heart, it’s a group of people who want to co-create an encouraging, diverse community of people trying to make a difference.9

Something that makes me think is the independence you need for these types of organizations in order to work. Enspiral, for example tries to maximize both collaboration and autonomy, so everyone who joins needs to find your own way. There’s less official support, which might be hard for some people. This reminds me of the concept of commons: A shared responsibility and collaboration is needed in order for this to work. See the commons folder for more!


Citation

  1. Be.solidarityeconomy.eu. 2015. From http://be.solidarityeconomy.eu/
  2. Social Economy: Putting people before profits benefits everyone. 2017, 31 maart. From https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W-g_3Hzb7ec
  3. Dirnbach, E. (2020, 26 juni). What role do cooperatives and the “solidarity economy” play in class struggle? From https://organizing.work/2019/07/what-role-do-cooperatives-and-the-solidarity-economy-play-in-class-struggle/
  4. Cooperatives. 2017, 19 juni. From https://proutglobe.org/prout/socio-economics/economics/economic-democracy/cooperatives/
  5. Seven ways to build the solidarity economy. 2018, september 4th . From https://www.opendemocracy.net/en/transformation/seven-ways-to-build-solidarity-economy/
  6. International Development. 2017, 19 juni. From https://www.co-op.ac.uk/Pages/Category/international
  7. Solidarity economy: building alternatives for people and planet ; papers and reports from the U.S. Social Forum 2007 – Allard, Davidson, & Matthaei – ChangeMaker Publications – 2008
  8. Commons-Based Peer Production - P2P Foundation. 2019, august 5th). From: https://wiki.p2pfoundation.net/Commons-Based_Peer_Production
  9. E. 2020. About Enspiral. From https://enspiral.com/pages/about


More interesting references

Noa

The wikipage input value is empty (e.g. SomeProperty::, [[]]) and therefore it cannot be used as a name or as part of a query condition.

Post capitalism

Post capitalism is a state in which the economic systems of the world can no longer be described as forms of capitalism.

The thing that keeps the capitalism alive today is the economic and pollical system in which a country’s trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state who

are not after profit. Post capitalism is any hypothetical economic system proposed as a future replacement for capitalism.

The opposite of a capitalist state would be a communist state. Communism however, has a taunted name because of the failed attempts in history. The political leaders that took advantages and too much power in these communist countries are not forgotten. However, we should not forget the context of the first trial. During the cold war there was a huge competition and pressure between east and west, communism vs capitalism. One of the reasons communism failed is because communist leaders gave in to this battle and tried to ‘win’ by growing and gaining economically as much as the west. The system was not built like this and economic and political power was not in balance anymore.

Western people all learn about this in history class and see capitalism as a system doomed to fail.

It failed back then so it won’t work nowadays. But this doesn’t mean we should just go on with our capitalist lifestyles and wait for another solution.

I would describe post capitalism as a world where we aim for political and economic balance. This balance would ensure as much equality as possible. A system with public goods available for everyone and creating equal opportunities for every citizen. I think post capitalism searches for a state where there is political and economic democracy. It is as wrong for billionaires to have as much economic power as oppressor politicians would. In a post capitalist world both politics and economics should redistribute their power. It is a system where millionaires and billionaires could not exist.

Some options to create more economic democracy:

No private schooling.

Creates a gap between rich and poor. Makes people feel unnecessarily better than the other.

An ascending tax system.

Where the rich pay more taxes for public needs.

Public budgeting.

Where the budget of the government (taxes) are openly discussed and voted for where the money should go.

Higher inheritance taxes.

Losing more/all your money when you die, leaving no inheritance for your children but only for the world. Creates less inequality from the start of a life.

A living wage for all workers.

So no people can become rich by keeping others poor.

I think the most thorough and therefore maybe most effective system would be an UBI, Universal base income. This is a system where every citizen would receive a monthly income from the government, enough to sustain themselves without working. Within this system you break the link between income and employment. Creating more time for people to really flourish, do work they enjoy doing and are good at. Some people might stop working but studies and surveys have shown most people would keep working. Not so hard to believe as one of the six basic human needs is personal growth.

The topic of post capitalism relates to loads of other topics discussed in our reading group as some are systems and solutions to the problem of our capitalist economic system. Degrowth and a steady state economy is needed to redistribute our economic wealth. Profit is not the answer in a post capitalist world. Also a system of commons relates to a possible post capitalist world. A system in which we share products and facilities creates more economic equality. If these systems are part of our government it would rule out the need for profit and therefore eliminates companies and people becoming too wealthy.

These systems however would only work with a government that totally approves of it and ensure fair rules and guidelines.


Fictions of sustainability, the politics of growth and a post-capitalist future by Boris Frankel.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cQyr9l22fLE&t=48s

Links



[[Category: | ]]


[[Category: | ]]


Recent articles


Cosmologymeta750.jpg
Last modified at 21 October 2020 09:21:48 by User:Lovina


None.png
Last modified at 20 October 2020 18:36:54 by User:Roy Jakobs



None.png
Last modified at 20 October 2020 09:30:08 by User:Jaromir


Voorkant.jpg
Last modified at 19 October 2020 09:22:52 by User:Lysbth


None.png
Last modified at 15 October 2020 15:46:05 by User:Jfbuurstra


None.png
Last modified at 13 October 2020 20:41:17 by User:Noavanderburg


Flier for WGBS (Archipelagic) RADIO.jpg
Last modified at 12 October 2020 22:41:24 by User:Clarabalaguer


Directory.jpeg
Last modified at 12 October 2020 22:38:52 by User:Clarabalaguer


Taschen informationgraphics10.jpg
Last modified at 16 August 2020 13:17:01 by User:DaanKuyper
→ show all articles

CONTRIBUTE

Feel free to contribute to Beyond Social.

 

There are four ways to contribute:

Create a new article. Beyond Social is written and edited by its community. Contribute to this online publishing platform with an article (text, photo-essay, video, audio and so on) about your project, theory, event or initiative in the field of Social Art & Design.
Edit this page, or any of the other ones. If there is any missing information or spelling mistakes in this article, please don't hesitate to change it. Other complementing work, such as including media files (images/video's/audio) is also very much appreciated.
Talk with the contributers and others by taking part in one of the discussions on the TALK-page of an article. These pages are the semi-hidden backside of articles, hence ideal for discussions about an article without changing the initial text.
PROPOSE a new editorial. Beyond Social invites guest editor(s) to emphasize a certain issue, topic or theme. Guest editors write an editorial, invite others to create articles by an open call and/or add existing articles.


Shanti

The commons

The commons

is the cultural and natural resources accessible to all members of a society, including natural materials such as air, water, and a habitable earth. These resources are held in common, not owned privately. Commons can also be understood as natural resources that groups of people (communities, user groups) manage for individual and collective benefit. Characteristically, this involves a variety of informal norms and values (social practice) employed for a governance mechanism. Commons can be also defined as a social practice of governing a resource not by state or market but by a community of users that self-governs the resource through institutions that it creates. Wikipedia

These days more and more people are taking matters into their own hands. Living in a ‘commune’ is even starting to become popular. These people see the usefulness of shared land, but also in the city people realise that the air that humanity breathes is for everyone. And shouldn’t it just be clean?! Like-minded people speak up and make it clear what they stand for. If it becomes clear that the government has not changed the situation, a possible next step is to break free from this government and thus solve any problems yourself, together.

The power of the commons as a free, fair system of provisioning and governance beyond capitalism, socialism, and other -isms. From co-housing and agroecology to fisheries and open-source everything, people around the world are increasingly turning to ‘commoning’ to emancipate themselves from a predatory market-state system. Free, Fair, and Alive presents a foundational re-thinking of the commons – the self-organized social system that humans have used for millennia to meet their needs. Free, Fair and Alive by David Bollier

What is the tragedy of the commons?

THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS The tragedy of the commons is a theory, that shared good will never last for future generations because the individual man will act independently and do every thing to full fill his own needs. In an issue of Science in 1968, the American ecologist Garrett Hardin (1915 – 2003) became famous for this critical look on the concept of the commons:

”As a rational being, each herdsman seeks to maximize his gain. Explicitly or implicitly, more or less consciously, he asks, “What is the utility to me of adding one more animal to my herd?” This utility has one negative and one positive component.

1) The positive component is a function of the increment of one animal. Since the herdsman receives all the proceeds from the sale of the additional animal, the positive utility is nearly +1.

2) The negative component is a function of the additional overgrazing created by one more animal. Since, however, the effects of overgrazing are shared by all the herdsmen, the negative utility for any particular decision-making herdsman is only a fraction of –1.”

The Americal political economist Elinor Ostrom (1933 – 2012) won the nobel prize for economy in 2009 for disproving the theory of Garrett Hardin. She proved that thinking and working as a community and for the future does leed to more efficient outcomes. She did research on smaller communes where people were faced with problems and had solved these between themselves. She discovered that caring for the commons had to be a multiple task, organised from the ground up and shaped to cultural norms. It had to be discussed face to face, and based on trust.

Ostrom identified eight “design principles” of stable local common pool resource management:

Clearly defined (clear definition of the contents of the common pool resource and effective exclusion of external un-entitled parties); The appropriation and provision of common resources that are adapted to local conditions; Collective-choice arrangements that allow most resource appropriators to participate in the decision-making process; Effective monitoring by monitors who are part of or accountable to the appropriators; A scale of graduated sanctions for resource appropriators who violate community rules; Mechanisms of conflict resolution that are cheap and of easy access; Self-determination of the community recognized by higher-level authorities; and In the case of larger common-pool resources, organization in the form of multiple layers of nested enterprises, with small local CPRs at the base level.

MY OWN DEFINITION The common is that what we share and use together. It is a shared good like a piece of land, a pond, forest or objects like a bicycle or washing machine for which everybody takes responsibility. This allows the people who share this object or space to use it. But divide and share potential produce, decision-making or consequences evenly to prevent overuse and exhaustion. Collaborating over a common good works best when people set up rules together on which they all agree, participatory decision-making is vital.

There is some skepticism about the commons, especially by our current political paradigm where they talk about ‘The tragedy of the commons’. They fear that if no one takes responsibility and tries to optimize the situation for themselves it is bad for the whole community.

For example, if a community would own a fishing lake and everyone would just take out the fish for themselves, the lake would be empty in no time. But when rules are made where every person takes one fish and leaves the rest, the fish will have time to multiply and the people would be able to fish for years in a row.

So, short term self-interest of people makes everyone suffer in the long run. As to when collectively taken care of a property the lifespan might prolong.

LINKS:

  • Freerange vol.7 The commons: We are commoners, creative, distinctive individuals inscribed within larger wholes. We may have many unattractive human traits fueled by individual fears and ego, but we are also creatures entirely capable of self-organisation and cooperation; with a concern for fairness and social justice; and willing to make sacrifices for the larger good and future generations.
  • Anstadt –> Last summer I went to Switzerland for the first time. We met young people in the capital city of Bern. We started talking and they said that they lived on a piece of land next to the river Aare. We were allowed to park our camper there for a night and were faced with a nice surprise. The piece of land was managed by about 15 people. They all had built houses here together and laid out a large garden in which they all worked. This commune originated from many years of squatting. In the end, the municipality had given permission that, if the residents came up with a good plan, they could continue to live here. Later I found their plan online: PDF

File:Anstadt document.pdf

Anstadt
  • Bellingcat is an online organization in which citizens search for the truth behind the news. A lot of information can be found online thanks to videos filmed with mobile phones, links to websites or articles. The founders of Bellingcat questioned the authenticity of the news they heard and investigated themselves. They used google maps to check location data and asked people from other countries they had met online to go to this location and verify information. They opened a website in which they asked native speakers to translate text. In the meantime, Bellingcat has grown into a worldwide community of online networkers and together they are looking for real and fake news. Bellingcat – Truth in a post truth world
Bellingcat
  • Creative Commons is a nonprofit organization that helps overcome legal obstacles to the sharing of knowledge and creativity to address the world’s pressing challenges. They provide Creative Commons licenses and public domain tools that give every person and organization in the world a free, simple, and standardized way to grant copyright permissions for creative and academic works; ensure proper attribution; and allow others to copy, distribute, and make use of those works. The Creative Commons
The Creative Commons Projects


CITATIONS

  • Hardin, Garrett. “The Tragedy of the Commons.” Science, American Association for the Advancement of Science, 13 Dec. 1968, science.sciencemag.org/content/162/3859/1243.
  • Wikipedia contributors. “Elinor Ostrom”. Wikipedia, 10 oktober 2020, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elinor_Ostrom.
  • Bollier, David. “Free, Fair and alive.org/read-it”. http://www.freefairandalive.org, 3 september 2019, http://www.freefairandalive.org/read-it.
  • “When We Share, Everyone Wins.” Creative Commons, 25 Sept. 2020, creativecommons.org/.
  • Higgins, Eliot. “The Home of Online Investigations.” Bellingcat, 2012, http://www.bellingcat.com/.
  • Angus, Ian. “Ian Angus, The Myth of the Tragedy of the Commons, 2008.” Et Vous N’avez Encore Rien Vu…, 18 Apr. 2016, sniadecki.wordpress.com/2016/04/18/angus-mythe-en/.

Jaromir

The wikipage input value is empty (e.g. SomeProperty::, [[]]) and therefore it cannot be used as a name or as part of a query condition.

Green new deal

The magnitude of the climate related problems nowadays creates an oppressive feeling, as if we cannot go back and the extinction of ecosystems is certain. But if we look back, just a few months we see something hopefull. March 2020, the first lockdown caused by the Covid-19. Fresh air through the cities! In New Delhi, particulate matter had been reduced by 71%, worldwide CO2 emissions had been reduced by 25%, the water quality of the Ganga River improved by 40-50%, all in a few months (ScienceDirect). But the real effect of months of global locdowns was only that global heating was cut by just 0.01C by 2030(the guardian). This shows that if we want to achieve our climate goals, preserve our ecosystems, and avoid getting into climate wars, we need to slow down, and quickly. Various proposals and transitions are being developed worldwide that aim to combat climate change accelerated by humans.

In 2017, the United States stepped out of the climate agreement, a disaster for nature and people who are on the front lines of climate change. Since then, there has been a lot of opposition, many population groups, scientists, political parties and climate activist groups oppose the current regime. Since 2017, they have been working hard on a new proposal which appeared in March 2019, Called The Green new Deal.

The Green New Deal (Ocasio-Cortez et al. H. RES. 109.) is inspired by the New Deal by Franklin D. Roosevelt in the times of the great depression. The GND is a congressional resolution by Alexandra Ocasio-Cortez and Sen. Edward J. Markey to mobilize every aspect of American society to 100% clean and renewable energy, guarantee living-wage jobs for anyone who needs one, and a just transition for both workers and frontline communities — all in the next 10 years.

The green new deal is a 14 page long resolution that applies to every American and consists of two parts, the first part is about achieving net zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 and the second part is about the resilience of the population, called just transition. To achieve this goal, the following will be required, stating that this must be done as far as technology allows and that this will be available for everyone. (Washington post)

• Job safety

• High quality health care

• Safe housing

• Access to clean water, air, food and nature

• High quality education

• 100% clean, renewable and zero emissions energy sources

• Upgrading infrastructure

• Access to electricity by smart power grids

• Upgrading all buildings to maximize energy efficiency

• Zero emissions vehicle infrastructure and manufacturing; (ii) clean, affordable, and accessible public transportation; and (iii) high-speed rail.

• Removing pollution and greenhouse gas emissions of all industries “Spurring massive growth in clean manufacturing

• Collaborate with farmers to eliminate pollution and greenhouse gas emissions from the agricultural sector.

If this transition takes place without taking into account companies and employees in polluting sectors, a lot of unemployment will arise and the transition will have huge consequences. That is why this resolution not only ensures technological transition but also ensures that no one is left behind through the just transition mechanism.

Just transition is a method that is used worldwide to make a transition run smoothly, the point is that everyone involved in this transition has a voice and comes out better. What is good to see is that political leaders apply this idea in their campaigns, Democrat Bernie Sanders describes it in his campaign as follows: Just transition is for the workers and companies who are affected by the regulations, it offers them housing assistance, job training , health care, pension support, and priority job placement for any displaced worker, as well as early retirement support for those who choose it or can no longer work. In addition to political parties, there are many organizations that work for just transition and the GND. The climate justice alliance calls just transition. Just transition as a place-based set of principles, processes, and practices that build economic and political power to shift from an extractive economy to a regenerative economy. This means approaching production and consumption cycles holistically and waste-free.

Examples and inspiring video’s that explain the GND & Just transition:

1. The leap, What is the GND

2. VOX GND explained

3. Now This, Why We Need Alexandria Ocasio Cortez’s Green New Deal

4. Ruhr area Germany, Just transition from old coal mining

5. Climate justice alliance, just transition, The Frontline is a Force

6. Sunrise movement - Green new deal


Green deals In the EU there is also a green deal, but this is many times smaller in both impact and financial capacity. There is a lot of criticism about this deal as greenhouse gasses are still being emitted and taking action means to reduce emissions, taxating and compensation them. There is a campaign that has made the Green new deal for Europe. The Green New Deal for Europe is an international campaign for a swift, just, and democratic transition to a sustainable Europe. Founded in April 2019 by the Democracy in Europe Movement (DiEM25), the Green New Deal for Europe aims to unite Europe’s communities, unions, parties, and activists behind a shared vision of environmental justice.

Green deals in the Netherlands are agreements between government and other parties. The government creates law and regulations, mediates between parties to sustain a green transition and support green trade missions. Since 2011 more than 200 green deals

Links



[[Category: | ]]


[[Category: | ]]


Recent articles


Cosmologymeta750.jpg
Last modified at 21 October 2020 09:21:48 by User:Lovina


None.png
Last modified at 20 October 2020 18:36:54 by User:Roy Jakobs



None.png
Last modified at 20 October 2020 09:30:08 by User:Jaromir


Voorkant.jpg
Last modified at 19 October 2020 09:22:52 by User:Lysbth


None.png
Last modified at 15 October 2020 15:46:05 by User:Jfbuurstra


None.png
Last modified at 13 October 2020 20:41:17 by User:Noavanderburg


Flier for WGBS (Archipelagic) RADIO.jpg
Last modified at 12 October 2020 22:41:24 by User:Clarabalaguer


Directory.jpeg
Last modified at 12 October 2020 22:38:52 by User:Clarabalaguer


Taschen informationgraphics10.jpg
Last modified at 16 August 2020 13:17:01 by User:DaanKuyper
→ show all articles

CONTRIBUTE

Feel free to contribute to Beyond Social.

 

There are four ways to contribute:

Create a new article. Beyond Social is written and edited by its community. Contribute to this online publishing platform with an article (text, photo-essay, video, audio and so on) about your project, theory, event or initiative in the field of Social Art & Design.
Edit this page, or any of the other ones. If there is any missing information or spelling mistakes in this article, please don't hesitate to change it. Other complementing work, such as including media files (images/video's/audio) is also very much appreciated.
Talk with the contributers and others by taking part in one of the discussions on the TALK-page of an article. These pages are the semi-hidden backside of articles, hence ideal for discussions about an article without changing the initial text.
PROPOSE a new editorial. Beyond Social invites guest editor(s) to emphasize a certain issue, topic or theme. Guest editors write an editorial, invite others to create articles by an open call and/or add existing articles.


Tamara

ecological debt drawing

Ecological debt & colonial reparations


The ecological debt is about rich and wealthy countries owning a debt towards poor countries. After the period of colonisation and the industrial revolution the North (all industrialized states in Europe, the Americas and much of east Asia (4) were able to have a massive economic growth by exploiting and polluting third world countries. (1) We became wealthy by taking away other country’s wealth. To understand the debt, it is also important to know more about wealth itself.


Wealth

When looking at wealth it is hard to find a description of what is seen as wealth and what is not. Lots of times wealth is only shown in terms of money, however wealth can be way more. Wealth can be divided into two different parts; tangible and intangible wealth. Tangible wealth is shown into physical things which are seen and easy to quantify. An example would be; someone is very wealthy because he has a lot of money. Intangible wealth is not physically existing. However it is still valuable. Intangible means immaterial, unseen and not easily quantified. While tangibles are quantified, intangibles are qualified. An intangible wealth could be a personal trade such as your honesty, but also human rights or biodiversity. True wealth is having an abundance of what you value most, which can be money, but it can also be a healthy lifestyle. During the economic growth the only wealth which was looked at was the tangible wealth. Money is the main aspect in the current economy. Most of the time it stands above our values, however if we want our wealth to grow even further, it is important to be more aware of the way we live, how we produce and how it affects our society and environment. (2)



The way the economy is set up now revolves around tangible wealth. The intangible wealth like nature, biodiversity and human rights are all subject to making money. Creating the ecological debt.



Nowadays there are two types of nations: ecological surplus nations and ecological deficit nations. Ecological surplus nations are nations in which the bio capacity is bigger than the ecological footprint, most of these nations are poor. Ecological deficit nations are nations in which the ecological footprint is bigger than the biocapacity, which are seen as the wealthy nations. The ecological debt started growing when industrialized states in Europe, the Americas and East Asia started using more resources than they have. These deficit nations started using the biocapacity of the surplus nations. If global trade would be stopped immediately, these deficit nations - including the Netherlands - would collapse, because they don’t have the resources to keep up with the demand. (4)



Example: VOC

An interesting and relevant example of exploiting ecological surplus nations is the V.O.C., the Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie. In the 17th century, dutch traders found a new economy in trading goods such as spices, sugar, coffee, tea and porcelain. They discovered trade routes to Africa and Asia, and became the biggest trade company of europe. This period in history was seen as the golden century, because it was the beginning of our tangible wealth. However it also came hand in hand with slavery, colonization and inequality. (5)



Colonial reparations

With the V.O.C. came colonisation. Colonisation is the act of sending people to live in and govern another country. (7) When a country colonizes another country a lot of damage is done to the people and the planet, resources and people are exploited. To repair this damage the concept of colonial reparations appeared. Reparations are payments made by a defeated nation after a war to pay for damages or expenses it caused to another nation. (8) When looking at the past of the V.O.C and the history between the Netherlands and Indonesia you could say that still some colonial reparations haven’t been made. On the contrary, Indonesia has used their money to help fund the US Marshall plan to reconstruct the Netherlands fast after World War II. To acknowledge the colonisation of Suriname, The netherlands paid 50 billion euros as a settlement for slavery. However towards Indonesia, the Netherlands only expressed their regret. You could say that the Netherlands still has some colonial reparations towards Indonesia because they didn’t make any payments. However the government of Indonesia decided not to ask for a payment because they see value in more than just money. There are more ways to use the ‘regret momentum’ of the Netherland to improve diplomatic relationships between the Netherlands and Indonesia, which in the end was considered more beneficial towards Indonesia. Besides seeing the value in money, Indonesia saw the value in a trade relation, investments and social culture. So in one way you could say the colonial reparations are made, not through payments, but through helping and supporting Indonesia. (6)



Climate debt

When looking at climate change, and the effects it has on our planet, it is shown that the less developed countries, the ecological surplus nations, are affected the most by natural disasters. Since the 2000s, there have been more natural disasters than ever before. Besides natural disasters, climate change is also causing a lot of problems for the development of ecological surplus nations. Problems like lower agricultural output, reduction in the productivity of workers due to heat exposure, slower investments and damages to health. These countries often don’t have the resources to adjust and rebuild, however they have to pay more for adaptation, recovery and redevelopment loans. The whole process of the ecological deficit nations causing climate change, and the ecological surplus nations having to pay for the consequences of a problem they didn't cause is the climate debt. It has been a problem in the past, and is still a problem in the present. (9)



To change the way of treating the ecological surplus nations, change is needed in the way wealth is seen. The commoners have created a new type of wealth; care wealth. Care wealth is when people take care of forests, water, or urban spaces. These become part of their shared memory, culture, social lives and identities. Instead of producing goods or commodities, they become representatives of things, living systems, and relationships that are the focus of affection, care, shared experiences and emotional attachments. A market resource has a value which is defined by the price, however with carewealth the value is defined by memories, meaning and special feelings because people have dedicated their time and effort in it. (3)




Sources


1. Sebastian, Lea. “Ecological debt” Ejolt. Ejolt, no publication date. Web. 14 Sept. 2020.

2. Baker, Darren. “What is Intangible Wealth?” Intangible Wealth.wordpress. Intangible wealth wordpress, 27 January 2009. Web. 15 Sept. 2020

3. Bollier, David en Silke Helfrich. Free Fair and Alive The Insergent Power of the Commons. Canada: New Society Publishers, July 2019. Print

4. Adbusters, Kalle Lasn. MEME WARS The creative destruction of Neoclassical economics. First edition. Seven Stories Press, 2012. Print.

5. Canon van Nederland. VOC en WIC varen en vechten voor handel. No publisher, no publication date. Web. 15 Sept. 2020

6. Isnaeni, Hendri F. “Colonial Reparations - Historia” Historibersama. Historia, 13 Aug. 2010. Web. 22 Sept. 2020

7. Cambridge Dictionary. Meaning of colonization in english. No publisher, no publication date. Web. 22 Sept. 2020.

8. Cambridge Dictionary. Meaning of reparations in english. No publisher, no publication date. Web. 22 Sept. 2020.

9. Bassetti, Francesco. “The Cruel Irony of Climate Debt.” Climate for Esight. October 2019. Web. 13 Oct. 2020.

Roy

The wikipage input value is empty (e.g. SomeProperty::, [[]]) and therefore it cannot be used as a name or as part of a query condition.

In the early days(till around 2002) the industrial answer on climate change has been a sabotaging action from the: Global Climate Coalition GCC that provoked and opposed policies to reduce the C)2 emission

This was a lobby group that paid off scientists to provide fake evidence or reports stating that the climate change wasn’t real or way over exaggerated.

After the switch of about 5 years ago more and more companies went into so-called ‘Eco capitalism’. Many would go for a strategy of green washing (Green washing is that a company is paying a lot of money to marketing, that will make them look that they are doing a good job for the environment) but they aren’t really transforming anything big in their production process.

Another strategy that became popular is offering goods that are ‘hip’ and ‘trending’ in the eco world; examples are tiny houses. The concept of building your own tiny house and living a minimalistic ‘rich’ life is picked up by big companies who claim to be eco friendly but use all these bad materials in their construction of prefab tiny houses.

At this moment it is a proven concept that if a company gets an incentive, most will search for better ways to improve the production process in a healthy way for the environment but only if it’s an economical gain for themselves. Most of the political and economical powers still refer to the market forces that will solve the problem within the production chains of the ‘free market’. That means if supply and demand asked for more ecological demands, the supply will provide and the 'economy will fix the global environmental issues'

'The Supply and Demand That’s Driving Climate Change' Article

To have an example how supply and demand helped develope a city for the good, we see the example also made in the previous article. About the City of Amsterdam (and alot of other Dutch city's); People were sick and tired literately of all the emissions the cars gave in the city centers, by demanding more healty living space and demanding more cycling lanes, the supply came for them and banning cars out of the city.

Example 2: How C02 is still a economical market:

CO2 emission rights became a capitalist good, that is for sale and tradeable on the market that company’s can exceed their own regulated emission per year. It means that the government provides companies with a max they can emit within one year of production, written down as stock rights.

(I found this 'webshop' where you can actually 'offset' your carbon foodprint: https://www.goldstandard.org/take-action/offset-your-emissions Due to this site, it almost feels like we are back on the track of church indulgences you could buy in the middle ages after committed a sin and still wanted to go to heaven)

This problem with the emission rights for example is that if a country has a too strict climate regulation for big contributors of the CO2 emission, those company’s will simply move their production to a country where the rules are almost non existent and the company's won’t have to contribute to the regulations within there country itself. (see example of fashion production changing the river colour’s)

Predictionism: Due to this new collaboration of H&M and Vampire's Wife the rivers will turn black, just in time for Halloween. (link to [https://about.hm.com/news/general-news-2020/the-vampire-s-wife-in-collaboration-with-h-m---a-glamourous--dar.html)

H&M and other fast fashion company really think there are doing better, with more use of recycled materials, and the 'return your old clothes' policy so you get a discount on your next purchase, and H&M can recycle your old clothes. It will make the company brand itself 'green' and the costumer will believe that they doing actual good. Instead the most returned items end up in big containers and shipped to landfills or get burned. Only the items that are returned in the shop itself, will be on inspection hanged up back again for sale.

For this the Green capitalism only became a new way for companies to make more money while the consumer thinks they are actually changing the system for the better of the climate. Its time the responsibility of the climate change and pollution of our ecosystem is brought on the table of the big company's instead of the small consumer who tries to do good but won't make a dent in the overall system

But instead; it’s still a messed up marketing trick.


additional sources:

What is greenwashing? example with Fiji bottled water: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mOpa8kd6fBI

Altho it is a TEDtalk, and is aimed at the comsumer again taking the role of reducing their carbon footprint. Instead of forcing the big company's to take steps and use the audience of TED te make them aware with that.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=63hAHbkzJG4


Carboncloud Posted on 19th August 2020; Can a product be carbon neutral? https://www.carboncloud.com/2020/08/19/can-a-product-be-climate-neutral/?gclid=CjwKCAjwlbr8BRA0EiwAnt4MTrrcJndq2bGYYq5PevUyc6zT9bwl3GjFKXUkjYLei6BuvEnmvIRmFxoC3msQAvD_BwE

Explanation off Carbon offset > And how its failing.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xdW-6MXB0sI

Links


[[Category: | ]]



[[Category: | ]]


Recent articles


Cosmologymeta750.jpg
Last modified at 21 October 2020 09:21:48 by User:Lovina


None.png
Last modified at 20 October 2020 18:36:54 by User:Roy Jakobs



None.png
Last modified at 20 October 2020 09:30:08 by User:Jaromir


Voorkant.jpg
Last modified at 19 October 2020 09:22:52 by User:Lysbth


None.png
Last modified at 15 October 2020 15:46:05 by User:Jfbuurstra


None.png
Last modified at 13 October 2020 20:41:17 by User:Noavanderburg


Flier for WGBS (Archipelagic) RADIO.jpg
Last modified at 12 October 2020 22:41:24 by User:Clarabalaguer


Directory.jpeg
Last modified at 12 October 2020 22:38:52 by User:Clarabalaguer


Taschen informationgraphics10.jpg
Last modified at 16 August 2020 13:17:01 by User:DaanKuyper
→ show all articles

CONTRIBUTE

Feel free to contribute to Beyond Social.

 

There are four ways to contribute:

Create a new article. Beyond Social is written and edited by its community. Contribute to this online publishing platform with an article (text, photo-essay, video, audio and so on) about your project, theory, event or initiative in the field of Social Art & Design.
Edit this page, or any of the other ones. If there is any missing information or spelling mistakes in this article, please don't hesitate to change it. Other complementing work, such as including media files (images/video's/audio) is also very much appreciated.
Talk with the contributers and others by taking part in one of the discussions on the TALK-page of an article. These pages are the semi-hidden backside of articles, hence ideal for discussions about an article without changing the initial text.
PROPOSE a new editorial. Beyond Social invites guest editor(s) to emphasize a certain issue, topic or theme. Guest editors write an editorial, invite others to create articles by an open call and/or add existing articles.









The ecological debt is about rich and wealthy countries owning a debt towards poor countries. After the period of colonisation and the industrial revolution the North (all industrialized states in Europe, the Americas and much of east Asia (4) were able to have a massive economic growth by exploiting and polluting third world countries. (1) We became wealthy by taking away other country’s wealth. To understand the debt, it is also important to know more about wealth itself.

Wealth

When looking at wealth it is hard to find a description of what is seen as wealth and what is not. Lots of times wealth is only shown in terms of money, however wealth can be way more. Wealth can be divided into two different parts; tangible and intangible wealth. Tangible wealth is shown into physical things which are seen and easy to quantify. An example would be; someone is very wealthy because he has a lot of money. Intangible wealth is not physically existing. However it is still valuable. Intangible means immaterial, unseen and not easily quantified. While tangibles are quantified, intangibles are qualified. An intangible wealth could be a personal trade such as your honesty, but also human rights or biodiversity. True wealth is having an abundance of what you value most, which can be money, but it can also be a healthy lifestyle. During the economic growth the only wealth which was looked at was the tangible wealth. Money is the main aspect in the current economy. Most of the time it stands above our values, however if we want our wealth to grow even further, it is important to be more aware of the way we live, how we produce and how it affects our society and environment. (2)

The way the economy is set up now revolves around tangible wealth. The intangible wealth like nature, biodiversity and human rights are all subject to making money. Creating the ecological debt.

Nowadays there are two types of nations: ecological surplus nations and ecological deficit nations. Ecological surplus nations are nations in which the bio capacity is bigger than the ecological footprint, most of these nations are poor. Ecological deficit nations are nations in which the ecological footprint is bigger than the biocapacity, which are seen as the wealthy nations. The ecological debt started growing when industrialized states in Europe, the Americas and East Asia started using more resources than they have. These deficit nations started using the biocapacity of the surplus nations. If global trade would be stopped immediately, these deficit nations - including the Netherlands - would collapse, because they don’t have the resources to keep up with the demand. (4)

Example: VOC An interesting and relevant example of exploiting ecological surplus nations is the V.O.C., the Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie. In the 17th century, dutch traders found a new economy in trading goods such as spices, sugar, coffee, tea and porcelain. They discovered trade routes to Africa and Asia, and became the biggest trade company of europe. This period in history was seen as the golden century, because it was the beginning of our tangible wealth. However it also came hand in hand with slavery, colonization and inequality. (5)

Colonial reparations With the V.O.C. came colonisation. Colonisation is the act of sending people to live in and govern another country. (7) When a country colonizes another country a lot of damage is done to the people and the planet, resources and people are exploited. To repair this damage the concept of colonial reparations appeared. Reparations are payments made by a defeated nation after a war to pay for damages or expenses it caused to another nation. (8) When looking at the past of the V.O.C and the history between the Netherlands and Indonesia you could say that still some colonial reparations haven’t been made. On the contrary, Indonesia has used their money to help fund the US Marshall plan to reconstruct the Netherlands fast after World War II. To acknowledge the colonisation of Suriname, The netherlands paid 50 billion euros as a settlement for slavery. However towards Indonesia, the Netherlands only expressed their regret. You could say that the Netherlands still has some colonial reparations towards Indonesia because they didn’t make any payments. However the government of Indonesia decided not to ask for a payment because they see value in more than just money. There are more ways to use the ‘regret momentum’ of the Netherland to improve diplomatic relationships between the Netherlands and Indonesia, which in the end was considered more beneficial towards Indonesia. Besides seeing the value in money, Indonesia saw the value in a trade relation, investments and social culture. So in one way you could say the colonial reparations are made, not through payments, but through helping and supporting Indonesia. (6)

Climate debt When looking at climate change, and the effects it has on our planet, it is shown that the less developed countries, the ecological surplus nations, are affected the most by natural disasters. Since the 2000s, there have been more natural disasters than ever before. Besides natural disasters, climate change is also causing a lot of problems for the development of ecological surplus nations. Problems like lower agricultural output, reduction in the productivity of workers due to heat exposure, slower investments and damages to health. These countries often don’t have the resources to adjust and rebuild, however they have to pay more for adaptation, recovery and redevelopment loans. The whole process of the ecological deficit nations causing climate change, and the ecological surplus nations having to pay for the consequences of a problem they didn't cause is the climate debt. It has been a problem in the past, and is still a problem in the present. (9)

To change the way of treating the ecological surplus nations, change is needed in the way wealth is seen. The commoners have created a new type of wealth; care wealth. Care wealth is when people take care of forests, water, or urban spaces. These become part of their shared memory, culture, social lives and identities. Instead of producing goods or commodities, they become representatives of things, living systems, and relationships that are the focus of affection, care, shared experiences and emotional attachments. A market resource has a value which is defined by the price, however with carewealth the value is defined by memories, meaning and special feelings because people have dedicated their time and effort in it. (3)

Sources 1. Sebastian, Lea. “Ecological debt” Ejolt. Ejolt, no publication date. Web. 14 Sept. 2020.

2. Baker, Darren. “What is Intangible Wealth?” Intangible Wealth.wordpress. Intangible wealth wordpress, 27 January 2009. Web. 15 Sept. 2020

3. Bollier, David en Silke Helfrich. Free Fair and Alive The Insergent Power of the Commons. Canada: New Society Publishers, July 2019. Print

4. Adbusters, Kalle Lasn. MEME WARS The creative destruction of Neoclassical economics. First edition. Seven Stories Press, 2012. Print.

5. Canon van Nederland. VOC en WIC varen en vechten voor handel. No publisher, no publication date. Web. 15 Sept. 2020

6. Isnaeni, Hendri F. “Colonial Reparations - Historia” Historibersama. Historia, 13 Aug. 2010. Web. 22 Sept. 2020

7. Cambridge Dictionary. Meaning of colonization in english. No publisher, no publication date. Web. 22 Sept. 2020.

8. Cambridge Dictionary. Meaning of reparations in english. No publisher, no publication date. Web. 22 Sept. 2020.

9. Bassetti, Francesco. “The Cruel Irony of Climate Debt.” Climate for Esight. October 2019. Web. 13 Oct. 2020.

Links


[[Category: | ]]


[[File:]]
Last modified at by [[]]
















[[Category: | ]]


Recent articles


Cosmologymeta750.jpg
Last modified at 21 October 2020 09:21:48 by User:Lovina


None.png
Last modified at 20 October 2020 18:36:54 by User:Roy Jakobs



None.png
Last modified at 20 October 2020 09:30:08 by User:Jaromir


Voorkant.jpg
Last modified at 19 October 2020 09:22:52 by User:Lysbth


None.png
Last modified at 15 October 2020 15:46:05 by User:Jfbuurstra


None.png
Last modified at 13 October 2020 20:41:17 by User:Noavanderburg


Flier for WGBS (Archipelagic) RADIO.jpg
Last modified at 12 October 2020 22:41:24 by User:Clarabalaguer


Directory.jpeg
Last modified at 12 October 2020 22:38:52 by User:Clarabalaguer


Taschen informationgraphics10.jpg
Last modified at 16 August 2020 13:17:01 by User:DaanKuyper

→ show all articles

CONTRIBUTE

Feel free to contribute to Beyond Social.

 

There are four ways to contribute:

Create a new article. Beyond Social is written and edited by its community. Contribute to this online publishing platform with an article (text, photo-essay, video, audio and so on) about your project, theory, event or initiative in the field of Social Art & Design.
Edit this page, or any of the other ones. If there is any missing information or spelling mistakes in this article, please don't hesitate to change it. Other complementing work, such as including media files (images/video's/audio) is also very much appreciated.
Talk with the contributers and others by taking part in one of the discussions on the TALK-page of an article. These pages are the semi-hidden backside of articles, hence ideal for discussions about an article without changing the initial text.
PROPOSE a new editorial. Beyond Social invites guest editor(s) to emphasize a certain issue, topic or theme. Guest editors write an editorial, invite others to create articles by an open call and/or add existing articles.