Species and things that are nonhuman in a human-centered worldNonhuman is a way to look at the world, this worldview clashes with different theories, and these theories are epistemology, ontology, materialism, and ethology. (Wikipedia contributors, 2020)
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with knowledge. Epistemologists study the nature of knowledge, epistemic justification, the rationality of belief, and various related issues. (Wikipedia contributors, 2020) Ontology is the philosophical study of being. More broadly, it studies concepts that directly relate to being, in particular becoming, existence, reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations. (Wikipedia contributors, 2020) In the social sciences, materialism signifies a preoccupation with materiality and material processes, and how these contribute to forming the social. Both directions of materialism engage with material inequalities, whether it is between different social classes, or between humans and nonhumans. (Wikipedia contributors, 2020) Ethology is the scientific and objective study of animal behavior, usually with a focus on behavior under natural conditions, and viewing behavior as an evolutionarily adaptive trait. (Wikipedia contributors, 2020)
Do things have an essence? We give something a reason for being because it’s changing, but we should look further than organisms. We fail to see that there are other phenomena and things that are influencing us. This thesis is strengthened by the big amount of philosophers developing theories on the non-human and the world around us as a whole. One of these philosophies is process philosophy: “A worldview of process philosophy, more than process theology, is a worldview in the sense of it focuses on change rather than unchanging reality. We are not destined for one specific reality. We’re destined to a reality that can get better and better if we only work at it.”How would you define process philosophy?"
In order to have an ever-changing world we have to recognize our responsibilities as individuals and as a group, this is what intra-action talks about: What is Intra-action Intra-action gives us a whole new way of thinking about our relationship with each other, with the matter, with materials, with nature, and with discourse. When these different things are in relationships with each other, our ability to do stuff changes, transforms, or emerges. This video to me is very interesting because it talks about a phenomenon that you as an individual don't necessarily interact with but you do take part in shaping the matter and interactions around it. This makes it possible to recognize your own responsibility and that of others for example. Responsibility is distributed among the constitutive entities. This is where agency comes into play: agency is about action reconfiguring doing and being. It does not pre-exist separately but emerges in the relationships in these intra-actions.
In the context of new earth and nonhuman, water is a very interesting thing to look at. The oceans and bodies of water on our earth have no rights, just like anything else that is nonhuman. There are people using their own voices to stand up for these bodies of water.
The ocean is often seen as a symbol of power, strength, life, mystery, hope and truth. In Christian religion, it is also referred to as the tears, or sorrow of God. The salt in the ocean symbolizes stability. 60% of the human body is made up of water, with a salt ratio that is almost identical to that of the ocean. Because of the similarities between the human body and the ocean we believe there might also be a link between human emotion and the state of the ocean.
In dreams, the ocean may represent a bridge between the conscious and unconscious mind. A calm ocean may indicate a feeling of peace and tranquility, whereas a violent ocean may indicate a resistance toward the connection between minds.
In western psychology, the ocean is a symbol for the mother. It may bring the dreamer back to a time where they were taken care of. There are many beliefs that view the ocean as the origin of all life forms, so the ocean can also symbolize life.
In indigenous beliefs water on this earth is sacred. Women are the vessels that the water flows through to create a new life. They are the traditional carers of the water. Women are said to be sacred vessels. They carry water for nine months while babies are in the womb and so all human life comes out of the water.How can we as a society move forward? We need to be receptive to what is going on inside the environment around us and we need to realize that we are also part of this environment. We function because the space around us is made for us to function. We need to cherish this space and make sure it stays intact.
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